Objective(s) There is increasing evidence that the spectrum of JC virus (JCV) CNS disease includes novel syndromes other than Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), the appreciation of which is increasingly important in the context of MS therapies and immunodeficiency states. Our objective is to describe unusual presentations of JCV infection to heighten clinician awareness.
Method Three case reports.
Results A 56 year-old male HIV+ with decades of viral suppression and normal immune function presented with 1 month of non-specific headache that spontaneously resolved despite an MRI showing a new area of PML and CSF being JCV DNA+. He had had two similar episodes in 2003 and 2014 with MRI scans consistent with PML, CSF JCV PCR positivity once and brain biopsy positive twice. Another 61 year-old male presented with subacute binocular vision loss and was found to have newly diagnosed HIV and JCV DNA detected in CSF. MRI brain only demonstrated symmetrical chiasmo-hypothalamic enhancement. There has been some improvement after cART and steroids for IRIS. Thirdly, a 65 year-old presented with subacute progressive confusion and behavioural disturbance, one year post bilateral lung transplantation. MRI brain demonstrated no evidence of PML but CSF on three occasions demonstrated a progressively increasing JCV DNA load. Despite reduction in his immunosuppression the patient developed profound encephalopathy without localising features leading to death two months later.
Conclusion These cases emphasize the atypical presentations of JCV: chronic relapsing, unusual symmetrical visual pathway disease, and non-localizing encephalopathy without MRI evidence of PML.
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