Table 2

Demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients with nummular headache

Total number of cases reviewedn=110
Age group
Adults108 (98.18%)
Paediatrics2 (1.82%)
Age (years) (median ±SE; IQR)47±1.7 (37.5–61.5)
Gender (adults)
 Male41 (38%)
 Female67 (62%)
Age of onset of pain (years) (median ±SE)42±1.8
The intensity of pain (VRS 1–10) (median ±SE)5±0.2
Latency from the first attack to diagnosis (months; median ±SE)18±12.8
Duration of attacks (min)
 <3017 (53.13%)
 30–1208 (28.13%)
 >1206 (18.75%)
Diameter of the pain (cm; median ±SE)4±0.2
Number of attacks per day (median ±SE)3±2.1
Frequency (days/month; median ±SE)9.5±3.6
Localisation of pain
 Unilateral—left26 (38.24%)
 Unilateral—right35 (51.47%)
 Bilateral7 (10.29%)
Region of brain
 Frontal17 (21.52%)
 Temporal8 (10.12%)
 Parietal43 (54.43%)
 Occipital11 (13.92%)
Quality of pain
 Boring2 (2.78%)
 Burning9 (12.50%)
 Electric3 (4.17%)
 Lancinating3 (4.17%)
 Oppressive3 (4.17%)
 Pressure32 (44.44%)
 Pulsating2 (2.78%)
 Sharp1 (1.39%)
 Stabbing12 (16.67%)
 Throbbing5 (6.94%)
 Yes24 (35.29%)
 No44 (64.71%)
Temporary relief
 Yes47 (69.12%)
 No21 (30.88%)
Total resolution
 Yes40 (57.97%)
 No29 (42.03%)
Therapeutic interventions66
Onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A)12 (18.46%)
Triptan3 (4.69%)
Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)*9 (13.6%)
Lamotrigine8 (12.31%)
Gabapentin34 (52.31%)
Carbamazepine11 (16.92%)
Topiramate3 (4.69%)
Concomitant symptomsNausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia, allodynia, hyperaesthesia, tearing, itching eye, bilateral trigeminal hyperalgesia, dizziness, blurred vision, hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia, Hyperalgesia
Exacerbating factorsCough, head movements, valsalva, cough, sneeze, gym activity, physical activity, poor sleep, cold, combing hair
ComorbiditiesAneurysm of the temporal artery, aneurysm of occipital artery, occipital neuralgia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, migraine, myasthenia gravis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic tension headache
  • Missing data were not considered for the calculation of the frequency percentages.

  • *TCA includes amitriptyline and nortriptyline.

  • BoNT-A, botulinum toxin type A; VRS, verbal rating scale (intensity 1=least severe to 10= most severe).