Table 2

Six cases of PRES including brainstem lesions associated with TMA, in addition to our case

CasesPrincipal conditionsAge,
BP at admission
(mm Hg)
Lesions in MRIDetails
Haemodialysis patient with ANCA(Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies)-associated vasculitis50 years, F185/106Right midbrain, periventricular area bilateral deep cerebral white matter left lens nucleusThree months after introduction of dialysis, developed vision loss and nausea
Omoto, 2017Multiple sclerosis
Long-term interferon-β1b
42 years, F226/138Bilateral basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellumOnset after long-term interferon-β1b treatment, improvement with drug discontinuation
Yamamoto, 2021Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis56 years, FSBP 140Bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstemAfter onset of unconsciousness, died of heart failure on the following day
Malignant hypertension42 years, F240/120Brainstem and cerebellumRapid improvement with antihypertensive treatment
HELLP35 years, F220/119Pons, bilateral caudate nuclei, right lateral capsule, left thalamusTreated with haemodialysis and plasma exchange
Takahata, 2017HELLP-sustained acute kidney dysfunction33 years, F200/137Bilateral occipital parietal lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstemTreated with haemodialysis and plasma exchange
This caseMalignant hypertension40s, F230/150Bilateral subcortical matter, midbrain, pons, superior medullaRapid improvement with antihypertensive treatment
  • BP, blood pressure; HELLP, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets; PRES, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; SBP, systolic BP; TMA, thrombotic microangiopathy.